Located in a mountainous region just 25 kilometres  south-east of Seoul, Korea's newly designated UNESCO site, Namhansanseong, was designed as an emergency capital during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910).

It was used by the King during the second Manchu invasion of Korea in 1636. Originally built and defended by Buddhist monk-soldiers, it could accommodate up to 4,000 people. It was also an important site for administrative and military functions.


Its earliest remains date back to the 7th century, but they have been rebuilt several times, most notably in the early 17th century.  The city displays many engineering concepts of the period and changes in the art of fortification following the introduction from the west of weapons using gunpowder. Namhansanseong contains evidence of a variety of military, civil and religious buildings.

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Located about 25 kilomentres south-Eeast in Gyeonggi-do, Gwangju, Namhansanseong is the 4th UNESCO world heritage cultural site in the Seoul area.