Mission 1San Antonio Convention & Visitors Bureau/ Stephanie Colgan

Amid spring-fed rivers and rolling hills, San Antonio’s rich historic legacy can be found at the humble – yet glorious – San Antonio Missions.

The region boasts the largest collection of Spanish colonial architecture in North America, which includes five 18th century missions and the oldest cathedral sanctuary in the U.S.

In the 18th century, Franciscan priests from Spain established these missions along the San Antonio River, primarily to extend Spain’s dominion northward from Mexico, but also to convert the native population.

Not only are these buildings incredibly beautiful, but they give you a glimpse of what life was like in the days when colonial Spain was converting the native people to Christianity — an act that forever changed the face of North America.

These Missions have been permanently etched into the annals of North American history, which explains why they have been recently nominated for World Heritage status.

The Alamo

missions 2San Antonio Convention & Visitors Bureau/ Stephanie Colgan

Originally established as a mission in 1718, The Alamo – or Mission San Antonio de Valero – is the most famous of the San Antonio missions, known for the 1836 battle where 189 defenders of Texas freedom held the mission against more than 4,000 Mexican soldiers for 13 days during the Texas Revolution.

The most famous of the defenders, Davy Crockett, died fighting overwhelming odds for freedom. As a result, the Alamo became an inspiration and a motivation for liberty during the Texas Revolution.

In the mid-1950s, Disney’s King of the Wild Frontier helped to cement Davy Crockett’s place in popular culture, and in 1960, the story of the Alamo became larger than life when John Wayne starred as Davy Crockett in a movie about the battle.  

Today the Alamo continues to be a symbol of liberty.

The Franciscan priests went on to build four other missions south of the Alamo with the help of the native population, each five kilometres from the next. These walled compounds were self-sustaining, a hive of farming, ranching, crafts and trade.

Today the Missions are linked by the San Antonio River and Mission Tail, which is just perfect for hiking and biking. It’s well worth taking the time to visit all of the missions on the trail – and as four of them are still active Catholic parishes, the best time to visit is during a colourful Sunday mariachi mass.

While these churches have not been in continuous operation since they were established, many of the today’s parishioners are direct descendants of the people who built the churches.

Mission San José

mission 3San Antonio Convention & Visitors BureauThe ‘Queen of the Missions’, San José y San Miguel de Aguayo, was established in 1720. Its grand stone walls, bastions, granary and magnificent church took some 62 years to complete. Spanish designers, directing workers from the local Coahuiltecan tribe, built this mission using Texas limestone and brightly colored stucco.

At its height Mission San José provided a social and cultural community for more than 300 people, and was surrounded by acres of fields and livestock herds.

Mission Concepción mission 4San Antonio Convention & Visitors Bureau/ Stephanie Colgan

It did undergo some interior renovations in 2010, which returned the church’s interior walls their original rich colours. The church’s exterior was originally decorated with geometric designs painted on the façade. These exterior paintings have faded, but inside you can still see original frescos in some of the rooms.

Mission San Juan

mission 5San Antonio Convention & Visitors Bureau/ Stephanie ColganEstablished in 1756, Mission San Juan Capistrano’s generous fertile farmlands allowed it to be a completely self-sustainable community, while its surplus crops helped to supply the region with produce. The original chapel and bell tower at Mission San Juan are still in use.

Mission Espadamission 6creativecommons.org/Kim CarpenterAt the southernmost mission, Mission San Francisco de la Espada, you can see the best-preserved segment of the ’acequia’ an irrigation system that was used to bring water to the fields. Today, part of the acequia operates the Espada aqueduct and dam.

This mission was established in 1731 and included a blacksmith shop, a kiln for baking brick and workrooms with looms and spinning wheels.

Mission Trail Travel Tips

• It’s easy to spend two to four hours visiting the missions.

• Guided tours are free, as is admission to the park.

• More than 180 species of birds have been seen in the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, where native habitat is abundant. Walk the nature trail at San Juan to discover what the river and vegetation looked like when the missions were first established.

• The Mission Reach section of San Antonio’s River Walk includes an eight-mile hike and bike trail from Lone Star Boulevard to Mission Espada. It’s due to open in October, although some portions are open now.

• There are six bike rental kiosks between Roosevelt Park to Mission San Jose.

• Canoes and kayaks are allowed on a 1.6 mile stretch of the San Antonio River from Mission.